O presente artigo objetiva avaliar a influência do Curso de Nivelamento de Física Elementar do Programa de Cursos de Nivelamento da Aprendizagem (PCNA) sobre o indicador de desempenho acadêmico percentual de aprovação dos alunos do curso de Engenharia Civil da UFPA na disciplina Física I. Para isso, foi feita uma análise de 2010 a 2015 com base em 32 diários de classe da disciplina de Física I ofertados para a Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, totalizando 1.247 registros acadêmicos. Entre os alunos matriculados na referida disciplina, estabeleceu-se uma comparação do percentual de aprovação entre os alunos que obtiveram certificação (cursistas PCNA) previamente ao curso de Física I e aqueles que por algum motivo não fizeram ou não alcançaram 70% de frequência no curso de nivelamento (não-cursista PCNA). Os resultados apontam que os cursistas PCNA possuem percentuais de aprovação na disciplina Física I consistentemente mais altos que os obtidos pelos não-cursistas.
DAVID AUSUBEL'S THEORY AND LEARNING IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE LEVELING COURSES PROGRAM IN BASIC SCIENCES FOR ENGINEERING
Autores: Pedro Santos Valente; José Benício da Cruz Costa; ilberto Martins Lynch; Douglas da Silva Barros
Palavras Chave: Meaningful Learning, David Ausubel, Engineering, Evasion, Subsumers.
Various Universities in Brazil and the world face an evasion situation from their students. Moreover, the Engineering courses suffer from this same dilemma. The number of students that drop out Higher Education is highly relevant and connected to social, economic and academic losses. Trying to soften this problem the Department of Extension of the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA) created the Levelling Courses Program in Basic Sciences for Engineering (LCPBSE) in 2011. Teaching the basic content of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry is the main front of the program. The classes are taught to the new undergraduate students, even before they had contact with the subjects from the basic cycle, such as Calculus 1. The LCPBSE reinforces the fundamental topics teaching to the elementary subjects from the Engineering courses. This makes it fulfill the function of reducing the educational gaps in the conceptual and operational fields of the basic sciences, accordingly statistical studies. Considering the program as a tool against evasion, this paper aims the better understanding of how it works and comprehend how it was capable of raising the approval rates in the initial disciplines. In other words, this research focus on understand the epistemological learning mechanism that is connected to the increasing in students' academic performance. Our methodology was the bibliographic research through some theorists who study the cognitive learning. We analyzed the authors Piaget, Vygotsky, Kelly, Ausubel and Vergnaud. As result of the bibliographic survey, we verified that David Ausubel proposes the Meaningful Learning Theory, which can explain how the LCPBSE students are learning in a more effective way. According Ausubel it is necessary that the new information relates with some knowledge already existent in the apprentice's cognitive structure, in order to the learning occurs not in a mechanical way, but in a meaningful way. This relevant information are called as subsumers, which are anchors to the new knowledge to be acquired. Using this theory as foundation, the classes taught by the LCPBSE can be acting as organizers and developers of these subsumers, permitting the students to enroll Calculus courses already provided with the necessary prior knowledge. Ultimately, we conclude that one of the possible strategies to improve the learning and combat the evasion can be the subsumers development. This strategy is not limited to LCPBSE, but it can be also applied in another Universities programs.
"HOW AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM CAN IMPROVE LEARNING FOR AN ENGINEERING STUDENT"
Autores: Pedro Santos Valente; José Benício da Cruz Costa; Gilberto Martins.
Palavras Chave:Meaningful Learning; David Ausubel; Engineering; Evasion; Subsumers.
The evasion in Higher Education, especially in science courses, is a reality faced by Universities not only in Brazil, but also in several other countries around the world. The number of students who drop out of university is very expressive, resulting in academic, economic and social losses. To try to minimize this problem, the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA) together with the Institutto de Tecnologia (ITEC) created in 2011 the Levelling Courses Program in Basic Sciences for Engineering (LCPBSE), whose main area of action is to teach basic Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry for the newly enrolled students in Engineering Courses. These classes happen before the students have contact with the first subjects of the basic cycle, especially the discipline of Calculus 1, common to all Engineering Courses. Recent statistical studies have demonstrated that LCPBSE has a relevant role to reduce educational gaps in conceptual and operational fields in the basic sciences to Engineering, in addition to working essential topics to the basic courses of undergraduate. Recognizing the importance of LCPBSE as fundamental tool against evasion rate, the research is aiming to better understand its functionality and how it was able to increase the approval ratings. Thus, this paper has as objective to explain how the LCPBSE supports students and it tries to understand what epistemological learning mechanism under the factors contributing to students academic performance increasing. The methodology was based on the bibliographical research of several authors who study the cognitive learning. Among them, we studied those who had a philosophical cognitive/constructivist stance: Piaget, Vygotsky, Kelly, Ausubel and Vergnaud. As a result of this studies, we focus on David Ausubel’s work, who proposes the Meaningful Learning Theory, a thesis that may be able to explain how LCPBSE is helping students to learn more efficiently. According to Ausubel, for learning to be meaningful, it is necessary for the new information to relate to a relevant aspect already existing in the learner’s cognitive structure. These relevant aspects are called subsumers, which serve as an anchor for the new knowledge to be acquired. Based on this, the LCPBSE classes may be serving as an organizer of the students’ subsumers, so that they can attend the Calculus classes already with the necessary prior knowledge. Finally, we concluded that the organization of subsumers can be a critical strategy used to improve learning and to decrease the evasion rates. Such strategy can be applied not only in the LCPBSE, but also in other programs of other Universities.